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HISTORY OF RUSSIAN-EGYPTIAN RELATIONS


Diplomatic relations between the USSR and Egypt were established on August 26, 1943. Since then cooperation of the two sides have witnessed dramatic changes, but they have always been based on mutual trust and respect. Nowadays the Russian Federation and the Arab Republic of Egypt are partners in both bilateral relations and on international arena.

Cooperation between Moscow and Cairo was launched by the first economic agreement signed in 1948, according to which the Soviet Union exported grain, timber and other goods in exchange for Egyptian cotton. In the 1950-60s the Soviet-Egyptian partnership was at its peak. Thousands of Soviet specialists were sent to Egypt to assist in building factories, plants and infrastructure facilities including the famous High Dam in Aswan. At the same time many Egyptians were receiving education in Soviet universties and institutes.

Nikita Khrushchev, President of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, conducted the first official visit to the United Arab Republic in 1964. Four years later Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of the UAR, was in Moscow with a return visit.

After a period of relative decline in bilateral ties in the 1970s, starting with the 1980s the cooperation between Moscow and Cairo once again was on the rise. President Hosni Mubarak first visited the Soviet Union in May 1990 when the Soviet-Egyptian Declaration and the Long-Range Programme of economic, trade, scientific and technical cooperation were signed.

In December 1991 Egypt officially recognized Russia as a successor state to the Soviet Union.

In March 1996 Boris Yeltsin, President of Russia, and Hosni Mubarak held talks in the course of the Inernational Conference on the Middle East Peace Process and Counter-Terrorism in Sharm el-Sheikh.

In September 1997 Hosni Mubarak's second visit to Russia resulted in signing of a large package of documents including the Russian-Egyptian Political Declaration.

In March 1999 Russian parliamentary delegation headed by Egor Stroev, Speaker of the Council of Federation, visited Egypt, followed in March-April 2000by the delegation headed by Gennady Seleznev, Speaker of the State Duma.

In April 2001 President Hosni Mubarak payed another official visit to Moscow, during which the Long-Term Programme of developing trade, economic, industrial, science and technical cooperation as well as the declaration of principle of friendly relationship and cooperation were signed.

In September 2001 Ahmat Kadyrov, Head of the Acting Administration of the Chechen Republic, visited Egypt.

In September 2004 in the course of the visit of Sergey Lavrov, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, to Cairo the Protocol on strategic cooperation and dialogue between the foreign ministries was signed.

In November 2004 Mikhail Fradkov, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, visited Cairo. In March 2005 he was followed by Sergey Mironov, Speaker of the Council of Federation, and Igor Ivanov, President of the Security Council of Russia.

On April 26-27 2005 Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation, conducted a working visit to Egypt, the first visit on such a level for the last 40 years. He met with President Hosni Mubarak, Chairman of the People’s Council Fathy Sourour, Secetary General of the League of Arab States Amre Moussa. As a result of negotiations of Vladimir Putin in Cairo the Joint statement on deepening the friendly relations between the Russian Federation and the Arab Republic of Egypt was adopted. It underlined that they were acquiring the strategic character. In the course of the visit to the headquarters of the Arab League, Vladimir Putin proposed to consider the issue of the accrediting the Russian Ambassador to Cairo as Plenipotentiary Representative of the Russian Federation to the Arab League. In the course of regular session of the Council of this organization in September 2005, for the first time in its history, the official decision was taken on accrediting the Russian Ambassador in Egypt as Plenipotentiary Representative to the Arab League.


In May 2005 within the framework of the working visit  to Cairo, Andrey Fursenko, Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, signed with his Egyptian colleague Amr Salama the Joint Protocol on developing bilateral cooperation in the sphere of higher education and science.


Fathy Sorour, Chairman of the People’s Assembly of the Arab Republic of Egypt, President of the Russian – Egyptian Friendship Association, visited the Russian capital in April 2006.


The Protocol between the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of the Arab Republic of Egypt on cooperation in the field of education was signed in August 2006.


On November 1-2 2006 Hosni Mubarak, President of Egypt, was in Moscow with an official visit. The Egyptian delegation accompanying him also included Minister of Information Anis Fekki, Minister of Trade and Industry Rashid Muhammad Rashid, Minister of Investments Mahmoud Mohieddin, as well as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ahmed Aboul-Gheit, who was received by Sergey Lavrov.


Sergey Lavrov, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, in the course of two-day visit to Sharm El-Sheikh in December 2006 met with Hosni Mubarak, President of Egypt, and his Egyptian counterpart Ahmed Aboul-Gheit.


In April 2007 the Protocol of Understanding on establishing the specialized industrial zone with participation of the Russian capital in the city of Burg El-Arab (near Alexandria) was signed within the framework of the visit to the Arab Republic of Egypt of Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation, Viktor Khristenko.
In March 2008 Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, arrived to Moscow with official an visit, in the course of which he met with Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation, and Dmitry Medvedev, elected President. Heads of states attended the ceremony of signing the Agreement on cooperation in the field of using atomic energy.


In November 2008 Ahmed Nazif, Prime-Minister of the Arab Republic of Egypt, heading the representative delegation visited Russia and conducted negotiations with Vladimir Putin, Chairman of the Government of Russia.
On February 16-17, 2009 in the course of his stay in Egypt, Sergey Lavrov, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, was received by Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and conveyed to him the message of Dmitry Medvedev, President of the Russian Federation. The Minister also met with his Egyptian counterpart Ahmed Aboul-Gheit.


In February 2009, Valentina Matvienko, Governor of Saint Petersburg, participated in meeting of the Honorary Committee of the International Center for protecting children from exploitation and kidnapping, under the aegis of Suzanne Mubarak, spouse of the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt.


The official visit of Dmitry Medvedev, President of the Russian Federation, to the Arab Republic of Egypt took place on June 23-24 2009. As a result of negotiations of the head of Russian state with the President of Egypt Hosni Mubarak, the Treaty on strategic partnership between the Russian Federation and the Arab Republic of Egypt, was signed, which defined the main lines of bilateral cooperation. In the course of the visit, Dmitry Medvedev made a speech in the headquarters of the Arab League, met with Theodore II, Patriarch of Alexandria, and Fathy Sorour, Chairman of the People’s Assembly of the Arab Republic of Egypt, President of the President of the Russian – Egyptian Friendship Association.